Lesson Plan Petroleum Hydrocarbon
Chemistricks.com - Lesson Plan Petroleum Hydrocarbon
Education Level : Senior High School
Subject : Chemistry
Grade/ Semester : X / II
Topic : Petroleum Hydrocarbon
Sub Topic : Carbon compounds are Organic Compounds
Special Properties of Carbon Atom
Academic Year : 2008/2009
Time Allocation : 2 x 45 minutes
Standard Competence : Comprehends organic compound characters based on functional group and macromolecules
Basic Competence : Description of specification of carbon atom in forming hydrocarbon compound
- Identification of C, H, O element in carbon compound through experiment
- Explain carbon compounds are organic compounds
- Describes of specification of carbon atom in carbon compound
- Distinguish the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary C atom
II. PURPOSE OF LEARNING
- Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can Identification of C, H, O element in carbon compound through experiment
- Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can describes of specification of carbon atom in carbon compound
- Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can distinguish the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary C atom
- Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can explain carbon compounds are organic compounds
III. LESSON MATERIAL
Carbon Compounds Are Organic Compounds
Generally, the chemists classify compounds in this nature into organic compounds and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds are the compounds made from the living things. Among other of organic compounds are sugar, carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, lipid, and urea. Meanwhile, inorganic compounds are compounds that must not made from the non-living things. Water, table salt, sand, and alabaster are examples of inorganic compounds.
Special Properties of Carbon Atom
Carbon is nonmetallic chemical element symbolized by C. The name carbon is derived from the latin word carbo, meaning corcoal. In periodic table, carbon placed of group IVA and period 2. Carbon has the atomic number Z = 6 and can form isotops. The important isotopes of carbon are carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14.
The number of very much carbon compounds in this nature can not release from the special properties possessed by carbon atom. What are the special properties of the carbon atom? The special properties of carbon atom among other are carbon atom can form 4 covalent bonds; carbon atoms can form a carbon chain; and the size of carbon atom is small relativw. The following are explanations about the special properties of carbon atom.
1. Carbon Atom Can Form 4 Covalent Bonds
As with all element atoms, the electrons in a carbon atom reside in shells around the nucleus. carbon atoms have two electrons in their inner shell and this shell can only contain two electrons, so it is full. Carbon atoms have four valence electrons in their next shell. This outer shell can hold eight electrons, and atoms in general are much more stable when their outer shell is full by the electrons. To obtain a full outer shell or to form octet configuration, carbon atoms form four covalent bonds with other atoms. It is can not be done by other element atoms, except if exceed the octet configuration.
2. Carbon Atoms Can Form The Carbon Chain
Carbon atoms can attach to each other to form the linear, branched, and circular or cyclic (form the rings) carbon chain. The linear or branched carbon chains may be thousands of carbon atoms long, while the circular (cyclic)carbon chains usually contain from three to six carbon atoms. The chemical bond for carbon chains may be in forms of single covalent bond, double covalent bond, or triple covalent bond.
Carbon atoms can be distinguished into primary carbon atom (10), secondary carbon atom (20), tertiary carbon atom (30), and quarterly carbon atom (40). The primary carbon atom is carbon atom attached by one other C atom; the secondary carbon atom is carbon atom attached by two other C atoms; the tertiary carbon atom is carbon atom attached by three other C atoms; and quarterly carbon atom is carbon atom attached by four other C atoms.
In one 3-ethyl-2-methyl pentane molecule, there are 4 primary (10) C atoms, 2 secondary (20) C atoms, 2 tertiary (30) C atoms, and has no quarterly C atom.
3. The Size of Carbon Atom is Small Relative
Based on the electron configuration, carbon atom is has only two shells, those are K and L shells, so that the size (radius) of the carbon atom is small relative. Therefore, when a carbon atom attaches with other element atoms or with other carbon atoms, the pair of bonded electrons will attracted stronger to the nucleus, so that the covalent bonds formed are powerful enough.
IV. LEARNING MODEL
Approach: Process skill
Method : Combination of discourse, experiment, and ask & questions.
V. LEARNING SCENARIO
Teacher opens the class by saying greeting and asks the presence.
Teacher conditioning the class so the students ready to accept materials.
Teacher asks about student’s preparation for the material.
Teacher gives apperception
Teacher conditions the class to do the experiment.
Students do the experiment.
Students Identification of C, H, O element in carbon compound through experiment.
Students explain carbon compounds are organic compounds and discuss together with the teacher
The students describes of specification of carbon atom in carbon compound and discuss together with the teacher
The students distinguish the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary C atom
Teacher reviews the material.
Teacher gives a chance to student to ask questions.
Teacher and the students make the conclution together
Teacher gives homework for next meeting.
Teacher gives information about the matter for next meeting.
Teacher closes the class by saying greeting.
VI. LEARNING MEDIA
Chemistry books, students’ worksheet, LCD& computer, presentation slides, white board and marker, instrument and material for experiment.
Purba, Michael. 2006. Kimia untuk SMA Kelas X. Jakarta: Erlangga
Sunardi. 2007. Kimia Billingual untuk SMA Kelas X Semester 1 dan 2. Bandung: Yrama Widya.
VIII. ASSESSMENT AND FOLLOW-UP
a. Assessment: Quiz, Post test
Student succeed if reach percentage ≥70 % from quiz and post test.
Giving remedial for students whose reach <70 % from quiz and pos test
IX. INSTRUMENT OF EVALUATION
1. Explain the difference of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarterly carbon atoms!
2. Determine the number of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarterly C atoms in the following carbon compounds.
CH3 CH CH CH2 CH3
CH3 CH2 CH3 CH CH3
3. Why is the carbon atom can form the covalent bond that powerfull enough? Explain!