Lesson Plan Hydrocarbons and Petroleum

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Today post is a lesson plan about Hydrocarbons and Petroleum. In this post you'll find the example how to teaching chemistry on Comprehends organic compound characters based on functional group and macromolecules materials.


LESSON PLAN

Education Level                : Senior High School
Subject                              : Chemistry
Grade/ Semester                : X / II
Topic                                 : Hydrocarbons and Petroleum
Sub Topic                          : -Petroleum
              -Fraction of petroleum
-Quality of gasoline
-Combustion impact of fuel
Academic Year                 : -
Time Allocation                : 4 x 45 minutes
Standard Competence       : Comprehends organic compound characters based on functional group and macromolecules
Basic Competence             : Comprehends organic compound characters based on functional group and macromolecules

I.             INDICATOR
1.            Describes of petroleum forming process and natural gas
2.            Explains main components of petroleum compiler
3.            Interprets high rise distillation schema to explain base from petroleum fractions separation technique
4.            Differentiates quality of gasoline based on the octane number
5.            Analyses combustion impact of fuels to environment

II.          PURPOSE OF LEARNING
1.            Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can describes of petroleum forming process and natural gas
2.            Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can explains main components of petroleum compiler
3.            Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can interprets high rise distillation schema to explain base from petroleum fractions separation technique
4.            Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can differentiates quality of gasoline based on the octane number
5.            Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can analyses combustion impact of fuels to environment

III.       LESSON MATERIAL
Petroleum and Natural Gas Formation
                        Petroleum is a crude oil that occur naturally in sedimentary rocks and consists mainly of hydrocarbons. Meanwhile, natural gas is a flammable gaseous mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons.
                        Petroleum is formed by the decomposition of marine microorganisms, animals, and plants which are buried during millions years ago under Earth’s surface, while natural gas is formed from plankton (water-dwelling microorganisms) that include algae and protozoans.
                        After gradually forming in Earth’s crust, petroleum and natural gas slowly flow into the tiny holes of nearby porous rocks that serve as reservoirs. Because this porous rock is often filled with water and the petroleum although natural gas, both of which are lighter than water and less dense (in this case the both have the larger density) than the surrounding rock, hence they migrate upward through the crust. Eventually, some of these upward-moving hydrocarbons become trapped by an impermeable or nonporous layer of rock. Because natural gas is lighter than petroleum, so it forms a layer over the petroleum. This layer is called a gas cap.

Petroleum Composition
                        Petroleum in the form of crude oil recently extracted from the exploration well contains of many chemical substances in the form of solids, liquids, and gases. Most of the substances which are contained in petroleum are hydrocarbon compounds. Beside that nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen compounds are also contains in petroleum.
                        Hydrocarbon compounds containing in petroleum may in the form of aliphatic hydrocarbons although alicyclic hydrocarbons. The number of linear chain alkanes hydrocarbon occupies the largest portion in petroleum and cycloalkanes hydrocarbon occupies the second largest. Meanwhile, isoalkanes group, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen compounds, and also aromatic hydrocarbons contains in petroleum for number that small relative.
                        The major components of natural gas is hydrocarbons. In this case, natural gas may contain as much as 85 percent methane (CH4) and about 10 percent ethane (C2H6), and also contains smaller amounts of propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), pentane (C5H12), and other alkanes.
                        Once crude oil has been produced from an oil field, then the oil is treated with chemicals and heated to remove water and solids on the oil. Beside that the natural gas is separated from the oil. The oil is then stored in a tank and later transported to a refinery by truck, railroad tank car, barge, or pipeline.
                        In the oil refinery, the crude oil is processed further through a series of chemical and physical processes. In this case, the petroleum manufacture is a method to separate the petroleum components (fractions) using distillation principle. Because the components which are contained in petroleum are plenty, then to separate the components are used fractional distillation. In these  fractional distillation process, the petroleum components are separated based on the boiling point of each component.
                        From the storage, crude oil is flowed to the furnace and heated until reach temperature of about 400°C. From the furnace, the petroleum components later flowed to the fractionation tower in the form of oil vapors. The oil vapors in the tower will flows through the bubble cap. Vapor component which has higher boiling point will condense (form a liquid) and it is flowed through a plate, so that is separate from other components, while the components which has lower boiling point will condense on the top plate, and so forth until obtained several of petroleum fractions.
                        In the fractionation tower, the vapor (petroleum) components with lower boiling point have the number of C atoms which small relative and in the final of distillation obtained in the form of petroleum gases. Meanwhile, the petroleum components which have very much of C atoms will form a residue. Petroleum fractions can be shown in the following table.
Gasoline and Octane Number                     
                        Gasoline is one of petroleum fractions that many used in everyday life, especially used as fuel in internal-combustion engines, suppose on car and motorcycle. Gasoline utilizing as the fuel can not releases from the large of energy produced from combustion of the gasoline.
                        The quality of gasoline can be determined based on the number of knocking which is caused, and represented by the octane number.If the gasoline has the high octane number, then the gasoline has the good quality and on the contrary the gasoline which has the low octane number is the gasoline that poor used as fuel. Octane number on the gasoline is represented by the number of 0 to 100. How to determine the octane number of gasoline?
                        To determine the octane number, is used two compounds as standard, those are n-heptane (linear chain alkane) and isooctane  (branched chain alkane) which the both are compounds which are contained in gasoline.
                        Although the octane number of gasoline is determined based on the ratio of isooctane and n-heptane compounds, it is not means that gasoline just only containing of the both substances. However, the gasoline quality is equivalent with the percentage of isooctane and percentage of n-heptane containing in the gasoline.
                        Gasoline combustion added by TEL can produce the oxide of lead which go out with the exhaust gases or attach on the engine components. In order to the oxide of lead do not attach on the engine components, hence into the gasoline is mixed the other substance, that is ethylene bromide (C2H4Br2). Ethylene bromide compound will reacts with TEL producing lead bromide compound is volatile, hence this compound will be removed at the same time with the other exhaust gases.
                        Thus, TEL and ethylene bromide in gasoline can cause the pollution risk threatening the safety of humans life and other organisms. This case because, the exhaust gases produced contains the extremely poisonous lead compound. Therefore, at this time, the additive substance used in the gasoline is substituted with safer other substance, that is methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) which can reduce the environment pollution risk, especially for air.

IV.       LEARNING MODEL
Approach:   Process skill
Method  : Combination of discourse, ask & questions

V.          LEARNING SCENARIO
No
Learning Activities
Time
(minutes)
1.







2.











3.

 Opening
Teacher opens the class by saying greeting and asks the presence.
Teacher conditioning the class so the students ready to accept materials.
Teacher asks about student’s preparation for the material.
Teacher gives apperception
Main Activities
Teacher describes of petroleum forming process and natural gas
Teacher explains main components of petroleum compiler.
Students interprets high rise distillation schema to explain base from petroleum fractions separation technique
The students differentiates quality of gasoline based on the octane number
The students analyses combustion impact of fuels to environment
Closing
Teacher reviews the material.
Teacher gives a chance to student to ask questions.
Quiz.
Teacher and the students make the conclusion together
Teacher gives homework for next meeting.
Teacher gives information about the matter for next meeting.
Teacher closes the class by saying greeting.
5 x 2







70 x 2











15 x 2

VI.       LEARNING MEDIA
Chemistry books, students’ worksheet, LCD& computer, presentation slides, white board and marker, instrument.

VII.    REFERENCES
Purba, Michael. 2006. Kimia untuk SMA Kelas X. Jakarta: Erlangga
Sunardi. 2007. Kimia Billingual untuk SMA Kelas X Semester 1 dan 2. Bandung: Yrama Widya.
VIII. ASSESSMENT AND FOLLOW-UP
a.       Assessment: Quiz, Post test
b.      Continuing:
Student succeed if reach percentage ≥75 % from quiz and post test.
Giving remedial for students whose reach <75 % from quiz and pos test
IX.       INSTRUMENT OF EVALUATION
1.            Explain how is the formation processes of petroleum and natural gas!
2.            How to increase the octane number of gasoline?
3.            Determine the octane number of gasoline containing 75% of isooctane and 25% of n-heptane
4.            Why gasoline containing TEL can pollute the environment?Explain!



 

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