Lesson Plan Alkane, alkene, alkyne

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Today post is a lesson plan about alkane, alkene, alkyne. In this post you'll find the example how to teaching chemistry of physical properties of alkane, alkene, alkyne, and Isomer materials.


LESSON PLAN

Education Level                : Senior High School
Subject                              : Chemistry
Grade/ Semester                : X / II
Topic                                 : Hydrocarbons and Petroleum
Sub Topic                          : Alkane, alkene, alkyne
   Physical properties of alkane, alkene, alkyne
   Isomer
Academic Year                 : -
Time Allocation                : 7 x 45 minutes
Standard Competence       : Comprehends organic compound characters based on functional group and macromolecules
Basic Competence            : Classifies hydrocarbon compound based on the structure and the relationship with compound character

I.             INDICATOR
  1. Explain the meaning of alkane, alkene, alkyne and mention some example of alkane, alkene, and alkyne
  2. Explain the nomenclature of alkane, alkene, alkyne
  3. Describes the physical properties of alkane, alkene and alkyne
  4. Explain the meaning of isomer and mention the kinds of isomers

II.          PURPOSE OF LEARNING
1.      Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can explain the meaning of alkane, alkene, alkyne and mention some example of alkane, alkene, and alkyne
2.      Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can explain the the nomenclature of alkane, alkene, alkyne
3.      Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can describes the physical properties of alkane, alkene and alkyne
4.      Students of Senior High School Class X semester 2 can explain the meaning of isomer and mention the kinds of isomers

III.       LESSON MATERIAL
Alkanes
Alkanes is a group of hydrocarbon compounds which all of the carbon interatomic bonds are single bond and form the opened carbon chains. Therefore, alkanes can be classified into the saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.
The ratio of C atoms and H atoms in an alkane is represented by the general formula, CnH2n+2; where n represent the number of C atoms and 2n+2 represent the number of H atoms.
Because alkanes are the group of compounds that have the similar properties and also have the same general formula, then alkanes are classified into homologous series, so that the naming of alkanes is n-ane, where n is the word which represent the number of C atoms in the alkanes.
Example:
n = 2   ; C2H6
n = 6   ; C6H14
Alkenes
Alkenes is a group of hydrocarbon compounds having the double bond and the carbon interatomic bonds form the opened carbon chains. Therefore, alkenes can be classified into the unsaturated-aliphatic hydrocarbons.
The ratio of C atoms and H atoms in an alkene is represented by the general formula, CnH2n; where n represent the number of C atoms and 2n represent the number of H atoms.
Example:
n = 2  ; C2H4
n = 6  ; C6H14
The naming of alkenes is similar to the naming of alkanes, but the suffix “-ane” is substituted by “-ene”.
Alkynes
Alkynes is agroup of hydrocarbon compounds having the triple bond and the carbon interatomic bonds form the opened carbon chains. Therefore, alkynes can be classified into the unsaturated-aliphatic hydrocarbons.
The ratio of C atoms and H atoms in an alkyne is represented by the general formula, CnH2n-2; where n represent the number of C atoms and 2n-2 represent the number of H atoms.
Examples:
n =  ; C2H2
n =  ; C6H10
Alkyne compounds are also a homologous series, so that the naming of alkynes is similar to the naming of alkanes and alkenes, but the suffixes “-ane” or “-ene” are substituted by “–yne”.

Nomenclature System of Alkanes
Linear Chain Alkanes
For the linear chain alkanes, IUPAC was fixed the naming rule by giving a normal name, abbreviated as “n”.
Branched Chain Alkanes
For the branched chain alkanes, IUPAC was fixed the rule by follows the steps below.
1.      Determining the main chain, that is the longest carbon chain. If there are more than one of the longest carbon chains, then choose the main chain having the largest branches, and the main chain is given by the appropriate alkane name according to the number of C atom on the main chain.
2.      C atoms on the main chain are given by the ordering number started from C atom which nearest to the branch.
3.      The name of alkane compound is the number of branch C atom + the name of alkyl group (branch) + the name of alkane.
Nomenclature System of Alkenes
Linear Chain Alkenes
For the linear chain alkanes, IUPAC was fixed the naming rules by writing the ordering number of C atoms having double bond followed by the name of alkene accorded to the number of C atom. C atoms having double bond are given the small number as possible.
Branched Chain Alkenes
For the branched chain alkenes, IUPAC was fixed the naming rules by follows the steps below:
1.      Determine the main chain, thet is the longest chain containing a double bond.
2.      C atoms on the main chain are given by the ordering number and C atom having the double bond is given the small number as possible.
3.      Relate to the alkyl group an alkenes, hold the rules such as on the alkanes.
4.      Alkene name is the number of branch C atom + the name of alkyl group (branch) + the number of C atom forming the double bond+ the name of alkene.
Nomenclature System of Alkynes
Linear Chain Alkynes
According to IUPAC, the rules for naming of alkyne compounds are similar to the alkene compounds. The rules also valid for linear chain alkynes although for branced chain alkynes. The differences are on the alkynes there are carbon which form the triple bond and the suffix “-ane” is substituted by “-yne”.
ISOMERS
Hydrocarbon compounds, such as alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes can form isomer, that is one of two or more molecules that have the same number of atoms but have different chemical structures and different properties. Therefore, an isomer may be has the same molecular formula with other molecule.
The Kinds of isomers
Generally isomers are distinguished into structural isomer and spatial isomer. Structural isomers are molecules that have the same chemical formula and have the same atoms in each molecule, but the order of atoms in which the molecules are different. The differences of order of the atoms produces the completely different molecular structures. Meanwhile, the spatial isomer relate to the configuration of atoms in the molecular space.
IV.       LEARNING MODEL
Approach:   Process skill
Method  : Combination of discourse, ask & questions.

V.          LEARNING SCENARIO
No
Learning Activities
Time
(minutes)
1.







2.











3.

 Opening
Teacher opens the class by saying greeting and asks the presence.
Teacher conditioning the class so the students ready to accept materials.
Teacher asks about student’s preparation for the material.
Teacher gives apperception
Main Activities
Students describe about alkane, alkene, alkyne and mention some example of alkane, alkene, and alkyne
Students discuss about  the nomenclature of alkane, alkene, alkyne.
Students analyze about the physical properties of alkane, alkene and alkyne and then discuss with the teacher about it.
The students describe the meaning of isomer and mention the kinds of isomers

Closing
Teacher reviews the material.
Teacher gives a chance to student to ask questions.
Quiz.
Teacher and the students make the conclusion together
Teacher gives homework for next meeting.
Teacher gives information about the matter for next meeting.
Teacher closes the class by saying greeting.
8 x 5







43 x 5











12 x 5

VI.       LEARNING MEDIA
Chemistry books, students’ worksheet, white board and marker, instrument .

VII.    REFERENCES
Purba, Michael. 2006. Kimia untuk SMA Kelas X. Jakarta: Erlangga
Sunardi. 2007. Kimia Billingual untuk SMA Kelas X Semester 1 dan 2. Bandung: Yrama Widya.

VIII. ASSESSMENT AND FOLLOW-UP
a.       Assessment: Quiz, Post test
b.      Continuing:
Student succeed if reach percentage ≥70 % from quiz and post test.
Giving remedial for students whose reach <70 % from quiz and pos test











IX.       INSTRUMENT OF EVALUATION
1.      How the molecular formula of alkane, alkene, and alkyne having the number of C atoms as follows:
a.       12
b.      9
c.       8
2.      Observe, is the following compounds are alkanes
a.       C12H24
b.      C30H62
c.       C27H52
d.      C25H52
e.       C50H102
f.       C63H120
3.      Write the structural formula for the following compounds:
a.       3-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl-1-hexene
b.      2,3-dimethyl - 2-butene
c.       2-methyl butane
d.      1-methyl-2-butyne
4.      Write down the structural formula and IUPAC name of all alkane isomers with molecular formula of C6H14
5.      Write down the structural formula and IUPAC name of all alkyne isomers with molecular formula of C6H10



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